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起重机起升机构等级计算及安全原则

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起升机构等级计算及安全原则

Service Classification of Hoist

起升机构的安全运行周期取决于是否按特定的工作等级正确使用。根据国家标准规定,起重机的起升机构工作等级由载荷谱和日均运行当量时间确定。

Safe and effective operation of the hoist is dependent on correct classification of the hoist’s operation group. According to FEM9.511 and China standard the hoist’s operating group can be determined from load spectrum and average Daily operating time.

 

1 载荷谱 Load Spectrum

载荷谱可以根据下面表格确定

The load spectrum can be determined from the table below

轻级
偶尔吊满载
经常吊轻载
固定载荷轻
中级
偶尔吊满载
经常吊轻载
固定载荷半载
重级
重复吊满载
经常吊半载
固定载荷重
超重级
几乎全吊满载
固定载荷超重
Light
Occasional full load
Usually light load
Small fixed load
Medium
Occasional full load
Usually light load
Average fixed load
Heavy
Repetitive full load
Usually average load
Heavy fixed load
Very Heavy
Usually almost full load
Very heavy fixed load

2 日均当量使用时间 Average daily operating time

 

日均当量使用时间可以根据实际使用时间按统计方法测算,参考公式如下:

The average daily operating time of the hoist can be calculated from the running time of the hoisting machinery (Hours/day):

参考公式 Formula

t=(2 x N x H x T)/(V x 60)

H = 平均起升高度 average hoisting height (m)

N = 平均每小时工作循环次数 number of work cycles per hour (cycles/h)

T = 日均工作时间 daily working time (h)

V = 起升速度 hoisting speed (m/min)

3 工作级别确定 Determining the operating group of the hoist

当载荷谱和日均当量使用时间确定后,可以根据下面表中数据查出工作级别:

When the load spectrum and the average daily operating time of the hoist are identified, the hoist’s operating group is obtained from the table below:

载荷谱
Load Spectrum
日平均当量使用时间Average daily operating time
ISO(GB) / FEM
(小时/天 hours per day)
≤0.5
≤1
≤2
≤4
≤8
≤16
轻级 Light
M3
1Bm
M4
1Am
M5
2m
M6
3m
中级 Medium
M3
1Bm
M4
1Am
M5
2m
M6
3m
M7
4m
重级 Heavy
M3
1Bm
M4
1Am
M5
2m
M6
3m
M7
4m
超重级 Very Heavy
M4
1Am
M5
2m
M6
3m
M7
4m

4   安全操作原则   Safe working principles

安全使用起重机、避免对人员和财物的损害的关键因素之一是谨慎地按照安全操作规范正确使用起重机。

Carefully following safe working principles is one of the most effective ways of preventing damage to property and injury to personnel.

 

所有与起重机相关人员,包括操作员、维护人员、车间主任等,应熟悉起重机的操作规程。

The operator, service man and work manager for the hoist should be familiar with the safe working principles for the hoist.

用户自己的或第三方的经过起重机厂家培训的维护队伍是安全使用的保障。

A service team from customer or third party trained by manufacturer for operating the hoist and any maintenance services is needed.

很多事故或损害来自错误使用或不当的维护,经培训的有经验的维护人员和操作员可以起到有效预防作用。

Misuse of the hoist or improper servicing may result in an accident that cannot be prevented by the safety equipment. Training in operation and servicing the hoist, foresight and care are essential in order to prevent accidents.